The Singapore area comprises mainland and other islands. The mainland of Singapore measures 50 kilometres (31 mi) from east to west and 27 kilometres (17 mi) from north to south with 193 kilometres (120 mi) of coastline.


Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the British East India Company; after the latter's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan. It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.

The National Flag of Singapore is a symbol of statehood. It replaced the Union Jack, which had flown over Singapore for 140 years (1819-1959). It was the committee headed by Dr Toh Chin Chye, the then Deputy Prime Minister, which first conceived and created the flag. Together with the State Crest and the National Anthem, it was unveiled on 3 December 1959, at the installation of the new Head of State, the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, at the City Hall steps. Upon independence in 1965, it was adopted as the National Flag.

The Flag of Singapore consists of two horizontal halves, red above white. Red symbolises universal brotherhood and equality of man; white stands for pervading and everlasting purity and virtue. In the upper left corner, a white crescent moon and five white stars form a circle. The five stars stand for the ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality.
(Source: Wikipedia)

Anthem: Majulah Singapura
Official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin & Tamil
National language: Malay
Demonym: Singaporean
President: Halimah Yacob
Prime Minister: Lee Hsien Loong
Highest point: Bukit Timah Hill 163.63 m
Currency: Singapore dollar (SGD)
Time zone: SST (UTC+8)
Drives on the: Left
Calling code: +65
ISO 3166 code: SG